Tom Burrell

Liberty and Common Consent

Magna Carta and Due Process of Law

Magna Carta and Due Process of Law: The Road to American Judicial Activism

Buy paperback and kindle e-book!

Recent Works

Privileges and Immunities and the Journey from the Articles of Confederation to the United States Constitution: Courts on National Citizenship, Substance, and Antidiscrimination, 35 Whittier L. Rev. ---- (2014), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2374985

Facebook Posts

March 2016
M T W T F S S
« Jan   Aug »
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031  
  • Buy paperback and kindle e-book now

     

    web image of cover - Copy

    front matter. . .

    Contents

    I. Introduction

    II. Medieval Institutions and Political Theory

    A. Saint Peter and the Vicar of Christ
    B.  The Coronation Oath
    C.  Feudalism

    III. Normans, Angevins, and the Magna Carta

    A. The Norman Conquest and Henry I’s Charter
    B. Consilium and Henry II’s Assizes
    C. The Assizes of Clarendon and Novel Disseisin
    D. Richard I: Regency and Community

    IV. King John and the Magna Carta

    A. Chapter 12
    B. Chapter 39
    C. Chapter 61

    V. The Thirteenth Century after Runnymede

    A. Henry III and “Evil” Councilors
    B. The Baronial Period of Reform, 1258–1265
    C. Edward I and the Council in Parliament

    IV. The Fourteenth Century and the Rise of Participatory Government

    A. Edward II’s Coronation Oath and Baronial Reform
    B. The Ordinances and the Competition for “Right and Reason”
    C. The Ordainers, Rebellion, and the Statute of York
    D. The Commons’ Petition
    E. The King’s Council and Common Law
    F. Archbishop Stratford and Judicium Parium
    G. Richard II and Impeachment

    VII. Summary of the Medieval Period: The High Court of Parliament

    VIII. The Seventeenth Century and Reason of State

    IX. The American Constitution

    A. Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and Amendments to the Articles
    B. The United States Constitution and the Fifth Amendment

    X. The Judiciary and Due Process of Law: Substantive Due Process

    A. Due Process of Law, Law of the Land, and Constitutional Common Law
    B. Vested Property Interests and Due Process of Law
    C. The Fifth Amendment, Substantive Due Process of Law, and Judicial Enforcement of the Bill of Rights
    D. The Fourteenth Amendment and Substantive Due Process
    E. Modern Supreme Court Law

    XI. Conclusion

    HTML Index (pdf)

    A

    Adams, George Burton…………… 22, 97

    American Revolution … 172, 243, 265, 267

    1774 Declaration and Resolves.. 169

    American Independence …171, 191, 265, 267

    Antifederalists…………………… 181, 182

    arbitrary rule……….. 119, 230, 233, 250

    America lost appreciation for concept of   … 187, 216, 218

    America, use of ..169, 185, 187, 190, 197, 203, 216, 221, 239, 247, 250

    England, use of ……3, 41, 48–70, 78, 134, 137, 145, 155–66, 184, 187, 207, 231, 232, 240, 265

    judiciary creating arbitrary rule ..185, 245, 248

    Arlidge, Anthony………………………… 55

    Article V……. 268, see also Constitution

    Articles of Confederation ..17, 168, 172, 173, 179

    amendments to……………………. 175

    Ashley, Maurice…………………. 162, 163

    assizes… 26, 32–44, 46, 57, 58, 60, 63, 84, 183

    Assize of Clarendon…………… 36, 37

    presentment juries…………….. 36

    Assize of Novel Disseisin…..36, 39–41

    B

    Baker, J.H…. 22, 33, 37, 40, 42, 43, 77, 118

    Baldwin, James F. …….35, 73, 81, 85, 89, 114–22, 122

    Bank of Columbia v. Okely, 17 U.S. 235 (1819)  …. 203

    Baronial Period of Reform, 1258 .17, 43, 50, 70–80, 85, 93, 98, 99, 106, 112, 116, 127, 132, 138

    as a building block………………….. 79

    Committee of Twenty-Four……… 73

    community of bachelors………….. 79

    Council of Fifteen… 71–80, 101, 132

    Provisions of Oxford……………….. 74

    Bartlett, Robert………………… 32, 43, 75

    battle, trial by ….14, 22, 40, 41, 53, see also judicial proofs

    Berger, Raoul…………………………… 188

    Biancalana, Joseph…. 24–26, 33, 39, 41

    Bible …see also church; Christian empire

    Jesus Christ…………………………… 11

    Luke……………………………………… 9

    Matthew……………………………….. 5

    Paul…………………………………… 7, 8

    Romans…………………………………. 7

    Saint Peter……………………………… 5

    bicameralism……. see also Constitution

    Bidwell, William B……………………… 149

    Bill of Rights…………………………….. 164

    as guiding principle………… 233, 239

    English ……134, 152, 164, 165, 233, 268

    incorporation of…………….. 251, 252

    judicial activism……………………. 240

    state bills of rights… 171, 182, 183, 192, 233, 234, 237, 239, 265

    United States …182, 194, 230, 236, 251, 252, 256, 266

    unnecessary….…….234, 235, 238–40

    bills of attainder…… 192, 204, 213, 247

    Blackstone, Sir William…. 151, 185, 201

    Bonham’s Case ….see also Coke, Sir Edward

    Bracton…………………………. 11, 82, 150

    Bracton’s antinomy…………… 11, 13

    Bracton’s two theories of kingship 11

    natural law…………………………… 13

    Brand, Paul……………………… 25, 82, 87

    Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)                    257

    Brown, A.L………………………………… 36

    Burgh, Hubert de…………………. 70, 125

    Burns, J.H…………………………………… 6

    Burrell, Thomas H…..17, 21, 47, 168, 172, 174, 180, 241, 242, 245, 251–53, 257–59

    C

    Calder v. Bull, 3 U.S. 386 (1798) …211, 218

    Cam, Helen…….. 80, 100, 121, 130, 143

    Canning, J.P………………………….. 16, 46

    Carpenter, D.A……………. 55, 67, 68, 75

    Chapman, Nathan S……………. 186, 201

    Charles I…………………….. 153, 161, 162

    execution of………………………… 162

    Charles II…………………………………. 162

    charter of liberties……………………… 17

    Henry’s……………………………. 31, 52

    Stephen’s……………………………… 32

    charter privileges and immunities ….17, 55

    checks and balances ….see also Constitution

    Cheney, C.R………………………. 9, 17, 50

    Christian appeals………………………. 6, 7

    null and void…………………………… 6

    reason of sin……………………….. 6, 7

    Christian empire………………………….. 6

    consent…………………………………. 6

    papal release…… 65, 79, 90, 93, 139

    papal review…………………………… 7

    Saint Ambrose………………………… 7

    sword bearer………… 9, 44, 140, 166

    temporal and spiritual swords……. 9

    church ….see also Bible; Christian empire

    canon law……………….. 5–14, 42, 50

    corporate status……………………… 6

    Petrinacy……………………………. 6, 8

    reason ….7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 86, 94–96, 99, 104, 106, 109, 117, 128, 140, 149, 207, 268

    Coke’s artificial reason………. 149

    ratione alligatus………………….. 8

    Civil Rights Act of 1866………… 243, 252

    civil war………………………. 1, 19, 44, 50

    American……………………… 241, 249

    English ….1, 53, 65, 72, 79, 80, 147, 162

    Clarke, Maude Violet………….. 124, 143

    Coke, Sir Edward …..52, 53, 148, 155, 161, 185, 196, 205, 217, 231, 246, 248, 267

    advocacy rather than legal history ….148

    Cole, Maija J…………………………….. 149

    common consent ….35, 145, 147, 159, 160, 165, 168, 185, 233, 236, 243, 267, 268

    common counsel …3, 26, 29, 34, 35, 55–57, 62, 67, 72, 88, 100, 102, 109, 128, 137

    assent ..……34, 35, 85, 88, 101, 102, 106, 130, 143, 175, 176

    common law……………………………… 78

    American adoption of…….. 170, 191

    birth of………………………………… 42

    common law ineffective………… 122

    common-law procedure ….82, 116, 118, 126, 129, 130, see also Council sub conciliar process; assizes; due process of law; law of the land

    information or suggestion……… 118

    ius commune………………………… 42

    king’s ability to record crimes…. 106

    common utility ….7, 8, see also Christian empire; Petrinacy; kingship; judicial activism sub judicial prerogative

    common good….. 67, 68, 79, 87, 207

    common profit ….88, 91, 101, 102, 104, 123, 140, 268

    necessity ….8, 10, 18, 44, 57, 60, 86–88, 95, 96, 114, 137, 140, 151, 163, 169, 207, 268

    salus populi suprema lex ….see also commonwealth

    welfare …10, 18, 44, 57, 86, 96, 102, 114, 136, 163, 166, 241, 245, 268

    commonalty ……93, 106, 113, 139, see also High Court of Parliament

    commonwealth …166, 267, see also judicial activism sub courtwealth

    commune, London’s……………………. 46

    competition over right, reason, utility, and necessity …. 91, 95, 99, 102, 106, 109, 128, 158

    compurgation ….14, 15, 22, 38, 40, 61, see also judicial proofs

    congressional enforcement of the law…..174, 178

    Constitution

    Article V………………………. 264, 268

    as a black box…………. 204, 256, 264

    bicameralism………….. 111, 171, 180

    checks and balances… 179, 248, 266

    ex post facto…………………. 192, 213

    impeachment………………………. 180

    ratification………………………….. 182

    we the people………………. 264, 267

    constitutional common law….. 191–93, 196, 202, 214, 246, 267

    Constitutional Convention of 1787 …179, 188, 194, 234, 236, 266

    coronation charter……………. 17, 31, 32

    coronation oath ……. 14–18, 30, 31, 52, 82, 86–102, 104, 107, 128, 133, 134, 136, 139, see also kingship, theory of

    inalienable rights … 16, 233, 250, 251

    Costello, George A…………………….. 256

    Council ….22, 34, 35, 61, 62, 69, 71–80, 80–90, 97–113, 114–22, 127, 132, 138, 140, 143, 180

    chancellor ….45, 69, 72, 75, 77, 83, 115, 116, 121

    committee of hearers……………. 115

    conciliar process……………. 118, 120

    concilium baronum………………… 69

    Council’s judicial role……… 116, 145

    common law ineffective……. 122

    due process of law…………… 121

    Council’s legislative role………… 115

    false suggestions……………. 120, 121

    justiciar……………. 45, 69, 72, 75–77

    council-regency … see also kingship, sub regency

    Coutances, Archbishop Walter de ….45, 47, 63

    cruel and unusual punishment …..…see also Constitution

    curia regis….. 11, 13, 27, 28, 37, 43, 117

    D

    Darnel’s Case …153, see also forced loans

    Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 17 U.S. 518 (1819) ….203, 230

    Davidson v. New Orleans, 96 U.S. 97 (1878)….. 211

    Davies, James Conway …..86, 91, 95, 96, 99, 101–05

    Davies, R.G……………. 75, 113, 114, 116

    De la Pole, Chancellor………………… 131

    impeachment………………………. 131

    Denton, J.H……………………………….. 75

    deposition …8, 16, 46, 108, 142, see also church; High Court of Parliament

    Edward II’s deposition…………… 107

    John’s almost………………………… 51

    Richard II’s deposition…………… 134

    Despensers……………………….. 105, 126

    diffidatio…………….. see also feudalism

    disseisin……………… see also feudalism

    Dodd, Gwilym………. 6, 81, 83, 111, 112

    Domesday Survey………………….. 30, 36

    Douglas, David C…. 2, 15, 21, 30, 31, 37

    Dred Scott…………………………. 229, 230

    Due Process Clause ….2, 183, 189, 191, 211, 212, 228, 230, 231, 245, 249–64

    substantive due process ….3, 230, 231, 233, 245, 252, 257

    due process of law ….2, 117, 118, 121, 126, 129, 145, 154, 155, 159, 182–264, 266, 267, see also Magna Carta; Chapter 39; Fifth Amendment; Fourteenth Amendment

    caught red-handed………….. 23, 129

    E

    Easterbrook, Frank H………….. 183, 186

    Edward I ….6, 19, 33, 80–91, 93, 96, 99, 101, 103, 107, 109, 114, 116, 119, 139, 144, 157, 231

    Council in Parliament……………… 85

    law giver………………………………. 85

    Edward II …..15, 75, 91–109, 114, 116, 128, 139, 141, 144

    coronation oath of…………………. 92

    Edward III …108, 113, 123, 124, 130, 142

    Ehrlich, Ludwik………………….. 8, 82, 93

    Elton, G.R………………………………… 122

    English Constitution ….1, 135, 141, 147, 165, 168, 179, 231, 265, 267

    Equal Protection Clause ….see also Fourteenth Amendment

    Evans, G.R…………………………………… 9

    evil councilors …91, 96, 101, 104, 140, 152, 232

    evolving standards of decency…….. 264

    ex post facto…….. see also Constitution

    excommunication …8, 9, 16, 44, 51–53, 65, 68, 71, 79, 83, 97, 124, 140, see also church

    John’s………………………………….. 51

    F

    Farrand, Max…………………….. 179, 180

    federalism………………….. 241, 256, 266

    feudalism………………………. 18, 46, 128

    commendation……………………… 21

    Conrad II…………………………. 23, 60

    consilium …21, 24, 26, 27, 29, 34, 69, 102, 137, see also common counsel

    diffidatio………………………… 25, 143

    diffidation …25, 26, 44, 54, 58, 62, 108, 140, 143

    disseisin…….. 24, 39, 48, 59, 61, 184

    distraint …24, 36, 38, 39, 41, 49, 62, 67, 97, 138, 140, 173, 178

    fealty………. 8, 15, 20, 23, 52, 57, 69

    feud…………………………………….. 19

    feudal contract……………………… 24

    homage …21, 23, 24, 32, 52, 66, 94, 95, 108

    judgment before………….. 22, 48, 54

    sine judicio et injuste………….. 39

    judicium parium.……………………. 57

    maintenance……………………. 20, 21

    oath-worthy………………………….. 20

    retainers………………………………. 19

    self-help………………………………. 26

    surety………………… 19, 20, 120, 121

    tenants in chief….. 21, 26, 28, 57, 58

    Field, Justice Stephen J… 245, 249, 251, 252, 254, 257, 258

    Fifteenth Amendment……………….. 241

    Fifth Amendment …2, 3, 179, 182, 227, 228, 254, 256, 264, 266

    plain-language construction of …183, 191, 217

    Five Knights Case ..see also forced loans

    forced loans……………….. 152, 153, 158

    Fourteenth Amendment …3, 241, 251, 252, 256–58, 266

    Equal Protection Clause …242, 252, 256, 257, 261

    substantive equal protection …253

    fundamental law …1, 97, see also arbitrary rule; Constitution; English Constitution

    binding the king…………………… 149

    Constitution………………………… 181

    judicial use of ….223, 224, 246, 254–56, 258, 259, 264, 268

    Magna Carta as……………….. 97, 187

    prerogative a part of…………….. 154

    Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972) …264

    G

    Galbraith, V.H……………………………. 30

    Ganshof, F.L…………………………. 19, 21

    Gaveston, Piers or Peter …91, 93, 96, 102, 105, 126

    Gedicks, Frederick Mark…………….. 251

    Glorious Revolution …162, 163, 165, 168, 265, 268

    seven bishops case……………….. 163

    Goldsworthy, Jeffrey …117, 152, 155, 157, 158, 165, 202

    Great Councils …27, 34, 70, 72, 74, 75, 103, 123

    Greenaway, George W………. 15, 31, 37

    Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965) …258, 260

    H

    habeas corpus …2, 152, 153, 158, 162, 236

    Haines, Charles Grove….. 205, 211, 251

    Hamilton, Alexander …185–90, 202, 204, 205

    Harding, Alan …14, 19, 22, 31, 36, 37, 40, 45, 76, 87, 110

    Harrison, John……… 204, 212, 230, 231

    Harriss, G.L. …….10, 72, 88–97, 99, 110–16, 124, 131–33, 144

    Haxey, Thomas………………….. 134, 163

    Haywood, Attorney General …193, 198, 232

    heightened scrutiny …see also judicial review

    Helmholz, R.H……………………………. 42

    Henry I……. 6, 17, 30, 31, 45, 52, 53, 55

    Henry II ….32, 35, 36, 39, 48, 49, 52, 57, 59, 63, 76, 77, 81, 183

    Henry III …66–71, 78–90, 109, 127, 139, 144

    majority………………………….. 67, 68

    minority……………………………….. 66

    Henry IV………………………………….. 134

    Herle, Charles…………………………… 158

    Hershey, Andrew H……… 72, 76, 77, 81

    High Court of Parliament …1, 84, 129, 132, 136, 139, 142, 144, 145, 265

    impeachment….. 128, 129, 131, 142

    parley………………………………….. 27

    parliamentary procedure……….. 133

    parliamentary sovereignty …2, 3, 29, 140, 145, 165, 166, 265

    partnership with community …141, 145

    Holdsworth, Sir William….27, 28, 33, 34, 37, 43, 49, 55, 77, 78, 82, 83, 112, 115, 122, 149, 152, 153, 162, 165

    Holmes v. Walton (New Jersey 1780) ….202

    Holmes, George……………………….. 129

    Holt, James C…………….. 44–64, 75, 128

    House of Commons…………………. 1, 75

    Commons …3, 42, 75, 100, 104–67, 181, 184, 185, 242, 265, 267

    impeachment …2, 99, 108, 130–33, 135, 139, 142, 152

    Hurnard, Naomi D………………………. 36

    Hurtado v. California, 110 U.S. 516 (1884) ….230, 245, 246, 248

    I

    indictment and presentment… 37, 38, 60, 109, 118, 121, 129, 130, 142, 154, 155, 183, 185, 190, 202, 204, 245, see also assizes; common-law procedure; due process of law; law of the land

    information…….. see also common law

    Innocent III, Pope…….. 9, 17, 50–54, 65

    inquest ….30, 39, 76, 80, 129, see also assize

    itinerant judges………………………….. 37

    J

    James I…………………………….. 150, 162

    James II……………………………. 162, 163

    Jefferson, Thomas…………………….. 237

    Jensen, Merrill……………. 172, 174, 175

    Johnson, Robert C…………………….. 149

    Jolliffe, John Edward Austin …7–117, 19, 25, 35, 64, 103, 108, 111, 143

    Judge, Igor………………………………… 55

    judicial activism ….245, 256, 258, 261, 264, see also arbitrary rule

    courtwealth………………………… 257

    judicial anarchy……………………. 211

    judicial hegemony………….. 263, 264

    judicial prerogative….. 205, 240, 245

    judicial state…………… 258, 267, 268

    reasonableness review …3, 219, 251, 254, 255, 261, 264, 268

    fairness…..204, 230, 245, 254, 257

    tyranny of the majority…… 240, 248

    judicial nominations………………….. 264

    judicial proofs ….38, see also battle, trial by; compurgation; ordeal; trial by jury; inquest; oath; judicium parium

    judicial review… 224, 227, 235, 248, 264

    beyond reasonable doubt ………202, 217, 227, 248, 249

    heightened scrutiny……….. 254, 255

    judicial restraint…………………… 216

    rational basis………………… 254, 255

    vested property interests………. 211

    judicium parium ….22, 38, 46, 60, 61, 109, 125–27, 129, 130, 142, 144, 181, see also feudalism; High Court of Parliament

    Judson, Margaret Atwood……… 148–63

    Jurow, Keith…………………………….. 120

    K

    Kantorowicz, Ernst………… 8, 11, 18, 99

    Keeler, Mary F………………………….. 149

    Keeney, Barnaby C…………………. 23, 61

    Kent, Chancellor James…… 192, 237–40

    Kenyon, J.P……… 148, 150, 158, 160–63

    Kern, Fritz……………………. 8, 10, 29, 33

    Killian, Johnny H……………………….. 256

    kin…………………………………………… 19

    King, P.D…………………………………… 10

    kingship, theory of ….9, 18, 82, see also vicar of God; church; common utility; arbitrary rule

    above the law….. 11, 12, 18, 86, 136

    divine right …117, 150, 165, 205, 265

    fountain of justice…………….. 10, 28

    minority ….22, 66, 69, 72, 73, 78–90, 108, 127, 130–32, 138, 141

    non obstante…………….. 68, 86, 164

    paradox……………………………….. 29

    per perceptum domini regis …59, 77, 153

    per voluntatem ….10, 48, 66, 184, 233, 268

    placing government in council …72, 73, 78, 131

    prerogative …..127, 128, 152, 154, 265

    proceedings against king or his ministers  …..57, 58, 81, 93, 97, 108, 128, 136, 153

    quo warranto……………… 68, 76, 80

    quod habet vigorem legis principi placuit ….10

    regency ….45, 66, 67, 69, 74, 78, 87, 93, 108, 124, 127, 131, 138

    separate capacities……. 95, 107, 150

    succession, conciliatory attitude …67, 87, 130, 134, 141

    two bodies…………………….. 8, 9, 11

    vicar of God ….9, 11, 33, 58, 165, see also church

    gratia Dei………………. 10, 16, 29

    voluntas princepis….. 29, 44, 57, 153

    knights and burgesses ….75, 76, 79, 103, 106, 107, 110–12, 123, 142

    L

    Lackland, King John ….1, 16, 25, 35, 36, 44–66, 69, 87, 90, 139, 144

    Lancaster, Henry of…………….. 106, 130

    Lancaster, Thomas of…… 104, 105, 129

    Langton, Stephen………………….. 51, 52

    Lapsley, Gaillard T…. 107, 125, 128, 129

    law of the land ….2, 42, 57, 59, 60, 69, 100, 101, 115–28, 154, 182–264,  see also due process of law; Magna Carta

    concept includes Parliament’s acts 155

    Leges Edwardi………………………. 52, 55

    Leges Henrici Primi……………. 31, 52, 55

    legibus solutus …..8, see kingship, theory of sub proceedings against king

    Liberty of Conscience or Declaration of Indulgence ….162

    Liebermann, Felix……………………….. 27

    Lindsay v. Commissioners, 2 S.C.L. 38 (Ct. App. 1796)…..209, 212–14

    Locke, John…… 166, 167, 207, 233, 267

    Longchamp, William…………. 45–47, 63

    Lords Appellant…………………. 132, 133

    Lovejoy, David S……………………….. 168

    Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967) .259

    Luscombe, D.E……………….. 7, 9, 25, 50

    Lyon, Bryce …..20, 27, 28, 32, 34, 35, 37, 38, 46

    M

    Maddicott, J.R. 15, 27, 34, 55, 67, 72, 73, 79, 87, 90, 96, 98, 102, 105

    Madison, James…………… 173, 180, 235

    Magna Carta…. 2, 17, 24, 48–64, 124–26, 137, 139, 143, 154, 157, 161, 167, 169, 202, 203, 230, 231, 265, 266

    Articuli super Cartas ….71, 89, 98, 101, 119, 139

    Chapter 12………………… 55, 56, 137

    Chapter 39 ….2, 55, 57, 60, 117, 137, 183, 266

    Chapter 40……………………………. 77

    Chapter ….61 55, 61, 62, 65, 67, 73, 94, 97, 137, 138

    Confirmatio Cartarum of 1297 ….17, 88, 98, 268

    confirmation of ….55, 70, 71, 78, 88, 97, 99, 112, 123, 125, 134, 138, 140, 143, 144, 158

    taxes………… 67, 71, 88, 123, 138

    foundation for statute 138, 142, 143, 205

    Magna Carta as a bargaining chip ….71, 79, 138

    modify………… 71, 84, 100, 157, 231

    Runnymede……………………… 54, 65

    spirit of………………………………… 71

    Maitland, Frederic……….. 19, 22, 24, 83

    Malcolm, Joyce Lee…………….. 150, 158

    Markus, R.A………………………………. 14

    Marshall, John………………………….. 234

    Mason, George………………….. 181, 182

    Matthew……………………. see also Bible

    Mayo v. Wilson, 1 N.H. 53 (1817) 198, 201

    McConnell, Michael W….. 186, 201, 257

    McKean, Thomas………………………. 234

    McKechnie, William Sharpe… 49, 53–55

    McKisack, May… 110, 111, 123–25, 130

    medieval political theory……………….. 5

    Merciless Parliament ….130, 133,  see also Richard II

    Milsom, S.F.C………………………. 76, 117

    Morris, Colin …….6, 7, 9, 46, 50, 51, 85, 107

    Murray v. Hoboken Land & Improvement Co., 59 U.S. 272 (1856)……228, 229

    Musson, Anthony… 37, 81, 98, 112, 134

    Myers, A.R………………………….. 131–34

    N

    natural law 8, 10, 13, 14, 33, 93, 95, 136, 145, 233, see also Bracton

    Necessary and Proper Clause………. 181

    necessity, law of …..see also common utility; kingship sub separate capacities

    Nelson, Janet…………………………….. 17

    Nicol, D.M…………………………………. 10

    Norman Conquest …14, 17, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 30, 60, 66

    William the Conqueror……………. 30

    Normandy………………….. 45, 49, 50, 69

    Northwest Ordinance…………. 183, 236

    Notestein, Wallace……………………. 149

    O

    Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. — (2015) ….261

    ordeal ….14, 22, 38, 40, 61, see also judicial proofs

    Ordinances ….71, 89, 98, 99, 101, 104–06, 110, 119, 123, 125

    Baronial Declaration……………….. 95

    Ordainers ….80, 125, 127, 132, 140, 142, 268

    right and reason ….99, see also competition over right, reason, utility, and necessity

    original writs…….. 33, 77, 118, 121, 145

    register of writs……………………… 81

    Ormrod, Mark W…..37, 81, 98, 111, 112, 134

    Osgood, Herbert L…………………….. 168

    P

    Palmer, Robert C………………………… 25

    Paper Constitution……. 72, 73, 132, 138

    Parliament …..see also High Court of Parliament

    participatory government ……..2, 3, 29, 160, 165, 170, 179, 185, 197, 207, 232, 243, 252, 257, 264, 267, 268, see also High Court of Parliament; arbitrary rule; Constitution; fundamental law

    Paterson, Justice ….208, 211, see also vested property interests; judicial activism

    petitions. ….12, 62, 63, 70, 75–87, 98, 100, 103, 110–22, 125–44, 158, 160, 163, 229

    Commons’ petitions… 111, 112, 142

    grace ..10, 13, 16, 28, 48, 81, 82, 116, 117, 142, 160, 163

    hallmark of the English Constitution …110

    hearers………………………….. 83, 115

    Petition of Right …82, 143, 152, 156, 158, 160, 161, 163, 187, 231

    right to…………… 134, 163, 170, 233

    Plucknett, Theodore F.T. …..7–117, 31, 84, 100, 129, 130, 132, 133, 148, 153, 162, 165, 233

    police power……………………… 241, 245

    Pollard, A.F…………………………………. 8

    Poole, Austin Lane ….17, 22, 23, 31, 35, 37, 38, 43, 44–66

    positive law …..8, 10, 11, 13, 18, 32, 60, 86, 96

    Post, Gaines…………… 10, 11, 13, 18, 88

    Powell v. Pennsylvania, 127 U.S. 678 (1888) ….248

    Powicke, Sir Maurice …..18, 59, 66–71, 76, 78–90, 121

    prerogative ….see also kingship, theory of

    Prestwich, Michael ….88, 89, 91, 98, 105, 110, 123, 125

    privacy, right to …3, 211, 255, 257, 258, 260

    Privy Seal……….. 89, 100, 101, 119, 145

    Procope, John………………………… 7, 10

    Provisions of Oxford ….101, see also Baronial Reform Period

    Q

    Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer ….107

    querelae……………….. 72, 76, 80, 81, 89

    R

    Rakove, Jack N…………………… 172, 174

    rational basis…. see also judicial review

    reason of sin ….see also Christian appeals; church

    reasonableness ….see also judicial activism; church sub reason

    recognition……………………… 37, 39–41

    regency…… see also kingship, theory of

    Relf, Frances Helen …149, 152–54, 158, 160, 161

    representative government …2, 3, 171, 233, 264

    republican principles …171, 196, 264, 265, 267

    Reynolds, Susan………….. 14, 22, 23, 33

    Richard I……… 34, 44, 45, 47, 48, 62, 73

    Richard II ….3, 99, 109, 128–35, 130, 133, 147, 163, 267

    Richardson, H.G. …14, 15, 18, 23, 25, 34, 49, 58, 63–66, 74, 76, 81, 85–87, 94, 104, 106, 114, 144

    Riggs, Robert E……… 155, 171, 185, 188

    Roberts, Chief Justice John…………. 261

    Robinson, I.S………………… 5, 6, 7, 9, 16

    Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973) ….259, 261

    Rogers, Alan……………….. 109, 132, 133

    Roman Catholics………………………. 162

    Rothwell, Harry ….2, 46, 52, 54, 56, 61, 65, 72, 88, 89, 92, 94, 98, 106, 184

    Rufus, William……………………………. 31

    rule of law …140, 144, 203, 204, 232, 242, 243, 267, 268, see also due process of law; arbitrary rule; judicial activism

    Russell, Conrad. …151, 153, 157, 158, 161, 162, 164

    S

    Saint Peter………. see also Bible; church

    salus populi suprema lex ….see also commonwealth

    same-sex marriage ….257, 261, 262, see also Obergefell v. Hodges

    Saul, Nigel……………………………….. 130

    Sayles, George O……… 7–117, 146, 160

    Scalia, Justice Antonin……………….. 262

    school desegregation…… 253, 257, 258

    Schwartz, Bernard…………………….. 202

    Schwoerer, Lois G. ….152, 153, 163–66, 233

    scutage…………………………. 56, 66, 137

    Semple, W.H……………………… 9, 17, 50

    Simpson, Hartley………………………. 149

    Star Chamber……………………. 122, 162

    State v. —, 2 N.C. (1 Hayw.) 50 (1794) …192, 232

    statute ….33, 60, 84, 86, 99, 100, 107, 110–22, 128, 143, 144, 154, 164, 231, see also High Court of Parliament

    42 Edward III………………… 156, 231

    annul….. 86, 114, 116, 128, 146, 163

    Edwardian statute………. 84, 85, 157

    equity and the rule of law… 117, 157

    importance of………… 113, 114, 205

    king in council enough for……….. 85

    modify law………………. 84, 157, 231

    ordinance…. 39, 84, 85, 99, 114, 115

    resolution of justice……….. 113, 140

    royal legislation……………………… 33

    suspending and dispensing …10, 152, 162–64, 224, 233, 265, 268

    Statute of 1341…….. 126, 127, 129, 132

    Statute of York………… 15, 93, 102, 106

    Stenton, Doris M………………. 22, 25, 41

    Storing, Herbert J….. 181, 182, 234, 239

    Stratford, Archbishop John 99, 122, 123–25, 128

    Stubbs, William……………………. 15, 246

    Supremacy Clause…………………….. 266

    suspending and dispensing ….see also statute; common utility; kingship sub prerogative

    Sutherland, Donald W…………………. 80

    T

    Tait, James………………………………… 47

    Taney, Chief Justice Roger B. …..229, 230, 245, 253

    taxation without representation ….2, 152, 265, see also arbitrary rule; Constitution

    Thirteenth Amendment………. 241, 253

    Thomas, Kenneth R…………………… 256

    Thompson, Faith ….68, 71, 86, 97, 100, 101, 105, 114, 117, 120, 121, 134, 154

    Tierney, Brian……………… 6, 7, 9, 32, 50

    Tite, Colin G.C……………………. 129, 152

    Tout, T.F… 74, 86, 89, 98, 101, 105, 107, 108, 129, 130

    Treharne, R.F………………………… 71–80

    Trevett v. Weeden (Rhode Island 1786) ….202

    trial by jury ……3, 37, 38, 185, 191–93, 198, 202, 204, 213, 229, 236, 239, see also judicial proofs

    petit jury………………………………. 38

    Trustees of the University of North Carolina v. Foy, 5 N.C. 57 (1805)….214, 216, 217

    Tudors…………….. 3, 122, 135, 145, 148

    Turner, Ralph V. ….11, 35, 43, 44, 46, 48, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 63, 67–70, 78, 86

    tyranny ….49, 134, 158, 230, 239, 266–68, see also arbitrary rule; High Court of Parliament; judicial activism

    U

    Ullmann, Walter ….5–16, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 60

    ascending theory…………………… 29

    descending theory…………………. 29

    V

    Valente, Claire…………………… 108, 109

    Van Caenegem, R.C…. 26, 31, 33, 38–41

    Vanhorne’s Lessee v. Dorrance, 2 U.S. 304 (1795) ….211, see also vested property interests

    vested property interests ….48, 68, 151, 177, 193, 206, 212, 214, 217, 218, 221–23

    A-to-B laws…………………………. 211

    due process of law……………….. 217

    law of the land………………. 212, 214

    natural law defense of……. 207, 208

    origin of judicial activism…. 206, 211

    representative consent ….151, 206, 210, 211

    takings………………….. 184, 207, 217

    jury required…………………… 208

    just compensation …….183, 191, 208, 212, 213

    necessity………………………… 207

    vicar of God ….see also kingship theory; Bible; Christian empire sub two swords

    vox curiae, vox Dei.……………………. 268

    vox populi, vox Dei …109, see also commonwealth

    W

    Walter, Archbishop Hubert…………… 50

    Warren, Chief Justice Earl …258, 259, 261, see also judicial activism

    Watt, J.A……………………………. 6, 9, 16

    we the people….. see also Constitution

    Webster, Daniel …203–05, 230, 245, 247, 253

    western constitutionalism……. 205, 207

    White, Stephen D…………………. 148–63

    Wilkinson, Bertie …..7–117, 102, 107, 125–27, 130, 134, 135, 140, 141, 143, 145, 211

    Williams, Ryan C. …171, 183, 185, 198, 205, 214, 242

    Witan………………………………………. 27

    written or unwritten constitutions ….33, 35, 60, 62, 84, 203, 212, 217, 220, 224, 239, 248, 258, 267, 268

    Wynehamer v. People, 13 N.Y. 378 (1856)…..217–19, 221, 223, 248

    Z

    Zylstra v. Corp. of Charleston, 1 S.C.L. 382 (Ct. Com. Pl. 1794) ….. 214

     

    Comments Off on Magna Carta and Due Process of Law: The Road to American Judicial Activism