Tom Burrell

Liberty and Common Consent

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    Magna Carta and Due Process of Law

    Magna Carta and Due Process of Law: The Road to American Judicial Activism

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      front matter. . .

      Contents

      I. Introduction

      II. Medieval Institutions and Political Theory

      A. Saint Peter and the Vicar of Christ
      B.  The Coronation Oath
      C.  Feudalism

      III. Normans, Angevins, and the Magna Carta

      A. The Norman Conquest and Henry I’s Charter
      B. Consilium and Henry II’s Assizes
      C. The Assizes of Clarendon and Novel Disseisin
      D. Richard I: Regency and Community

      IV. King John and the Magna Carta

      A. Chapter 12
      B. Chapter 39
      C. Chapter 61

      V. The Thirteenth Century after Runnymede

      A. Henry III and “Evil” Councilors
      B. The Baronial Period of Reform, 1258–1265
      C. Edward I and the Council in Parliament

      IV. The Fourteenth Century and the Rise of Participatory Government

      A. Edward II’s Coronation Oath and Baronial Reform
      B. The Ordinances and the Competition for “Right and Reason”
      C. The Ordainers, Rebellion, and the Statute of York
      D. The Commons’ Petition
      E. The King’s Council and Common Law
      F. Archbishop Stratford and Judicium Parium
      G. Richard II and Impeachment

      VII. Summary of the Medieval Period: The High Court of Parliament

      VIII. The Seventeenth Century and Reason of State

      IX. The American Constitution

      A. Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and Amendments to the Articles
      B. The United States Constitution and the Fifth Amendment

      X. The Judiciary and Due Process of Law: Substantive Due Process

      A. Due Process of Law, Law of the Land, and Constitutional Common Law
      B. Vested Property Interests and Due Process of Law
      C. The Fifth Amendment, Substantive Due Process of Law, and Judicial Enforcement of the Bill of Rights
      D. The Fourteenth Amendment and Substantive Due Process
      E. Modern Supreme Court Law

      XI. Conclusion

      HTML Index (pdf)

      A

      Adams, George Burton…………… 22, 97

      American Revolution … 172, 243, 265, 267

      1774 Declaration and Resolves.. 169

      American Independence …171, 191, 265, 267

      Antifederalists…………………… 181, 182

      arbitrary rule……….. 119, 230, 233, 250

      America lost appreciation for concept of   … 187, 216, 218

      America, use of ..169, 185, 187, 190, 197, 203, 216, 221, 239, 247, 250

      England, use of ……3, 41, 48–70, 78, 134, 137, 145, 155–66, 184, 187, 207, 231, 232, 240, 265

      judiciary creating arbitrary rule ..185, 245, 248

      Arlidge, Anthony………………………… 55

      Article V……. 268, see also Constitution

      Articles of Confederation ..17, 168, 172, 173, 179

      amendments to……………………. 175

      Ashley, Maurice…………………. 162, 163

      assizes… 26, 32–44, 46, 57, 58, 60, 63, 84, 183

      Assize of Clarendon…………… 36, 37

      presentment juries…………….. 36

      Assize of Novel Disseisin…..36, 39–41

      B

      Baker, J.H…. 22, 33, 37, 40, 42, 43, 77, 118

      Baldwin, James F. …….35, 73, 81, 85, 89, 114–22, 122

      Bank of Columbia v. Okely, 17 U.S. 235 (1819)  …. 203

      Baronial Period of Reform, 1258 .17, 43, 50, 70–80, 85, 93, 98, 99, 106, 112, 116, 127, 132, 138

      as a building block………………….. 79

      Committee of Twenty-Four……… 73

      community of bachelors………….. 79

      Council of Fifteen… 71–80, 101, 132

      Provisions of Oxford……………….. 74

      Bartlett, Robert………………… 32, 43, 75

      battle, trial by ….14, 22, 40, 41, 53, see also judicial proofs

      Berger, Raoul…………………………… 188

      Biancalana, Joseph…. 24–26, 33, 39, 41

      Bible …see also church; Christian empire

      Jesus Christ…………………………… 11

      Luke……………………………………… 9

      Matthew……………………………….. 5

      Paul…………………………………… 7, 8

      Romans…………………………………. 7

      Saint Peter……………………………… 5

      bicameralism……. see also Constitution

      Bidwell, William B……………………… 149

      Bill of Rights…………………………….. 164

      as guiding principle………… 233, 239

      English ……134, 152, 164, 165, 233, 268

      incorporation of…………….. 251, 252

      judicial activism……………………. 240

      state bills of rights… 171, 182, 183, 192, 233, 234, 237, 239, 265

      United States …182, 194, 230, 236, 251, 252, 256, 266

      unnecessary….…….234, 235, 238–40

      bills of attainder…… 192, 204, 213, 247

      Blackstone, Sir William…. 151, 185, 201

      Bonham’s Case ….see also Coke, Sir Edward

      Bracton…………………………. 11, 82, 150

      Bracton’s antinomy…………… 11, 13

      Bracton’s two theories of kingship 11

      natural law…………………………… 13

      Brand, Paul……………………… 25, 82, 87

      Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)                    257

      Brown, A.L………………………………… 36

      Burgh, Hubert de…………………. 70, 125

      Burns, J.H…………………………………… 6

      Burrell, Thomas H…..17, 21, 47, 168, 172, 174, 180, 241, 242, 245, 251–53, 257–59

      C

      Calder v. Bull, 3 U.S. 386 (1798) …211, 218

      Cam, Helen…….. 80, 100, 121, 130, 143

      Canning, J.P………………………….. 16, 46

      Carpenter, D.A……………. 55, 67, 68, 75

      Chapman, Nathan S……………. 186, 201

      Charles I…………………….. 153, 161, 162

      execution of………………………… 162

      Charles II…………………………………. 162

      charter of liberties……………………… 17

      Henry’s……………………………. 31, 52

      Stephen’s……………………………… 32

      charter privileges and immunities ….17, 55

      checks and balances ….see also Constitution

      Cheney, C.R………………………. 9, 17, 50

      Christian appeals………………………. 6, 7

      null and void…………………………… 6

      reason of sin……………………….. 6, 7

      Christian empire………………………….. 6

      consent…………………………………. 6

      papal release…… 65, 79, 90, 93, 139

      papal review…………………………… 7

      Saint Ambrose………………………… 7

      sword bearer………… 9, 44, 140, 166

      temporal and spiritual swords……. 9

      church ….see also Bible; Christian empire

      canon law……………….. 5–14, 42, 50

      corporate status……………………… 6

      Petrinacy……………………………. 6, 8

      reason ….7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 86, 94–96, 99, 104, 106, 109, 117, 128, 140, 149, 207, 268

      Coke’s artificial reason………. 149

      ratione alligatus………………….. 8

      Civil Rights Act of 1866………… 243, 252

      civil war………………………. 1, 19, 44, 50

      American……………………… 241, 249

      English ….1, 53, 65, 72, 79, 80, 147, 162

      Clarke, Maude Violet………….. 124, 143

      Coke, Sir Edward …..52, 53, 148, 155, 161, 185, 196, 205, 217, 231, 246, 248, 267

      advocacy rather than legal history ….148

      Cole, Maija J…………………………….. 149

      common consent ….35, 145, 147, 159, 160, 165, 168, 185, 233, 236, 243, 267, 268

      common counsel …3, 26, 29, 34, 35, 55–57, 62, 67, 72, 88, 100, 102, 109, 128, 137

      assent ..……34, 35, 85, 88, 101, 102, 106, 130, 143, 175, 176

      common law……………………………… 78

      American adoption of…….. 170, 191

      birth of………………………………… 42

      common law ineffective………… 122

      common-law procedure ….82, 116, 118, 126, 129, 130, see also Council sub conciliar process; assizes; due process of law; law of the land

      information or suggestion……… 118

      ius commune………………………… 42

      king’s ability to record crimes…. 106

      common utility ….7, 8, see also Christian empire; Petrinacy; kingship; judicial activism sub judicial prerogative

      common good….. 67, 68, 79, 87, 207

      common profit ….88, 91, 101, 102, 104, 123, 140, 268

      necessity ….8, 10, 18, 44, 57, 60, 86–88, 95, 96, 114, 137, 140, 151, 163, 169, 207, 268

      salus populi suprema lex ….see also commonwealth

      welfare …10, 18, 44, 57, 86, 96, 102, 114, 136, 163, 166, 241, 245, 268

      commonalty ……93, 106, 113, 139, see also High Court of Parliament

      commonwealth …166, 267, see also judicial activism sub courtwealth

      commune, London’s……………………. 46

      competition over right, reason, utility, and necessity …. 91, 95, 99, 102, 106, 109, 128, 158

      compurgation ….14, 15, 22, 38, 40, 61, see also judicial proofs

      congressional enforcement of the law…..174, 178

      Constitution

      Article V………………………. 264, 268

      as a black box…………. 204, 256, 264

      bicameralism………….. 111, 171, 180

      checks and balances… 179, 248, 266

      ex post facto…………………. 192, 213

      impeachment………………………. 180

      ratification………………………….. 182

      we the people………………. 264, 267

      constitutional common law….. 191–93, 196, 202, 214, 246, 267

      Constitutional Convention of 1787 …179, 188, 194, 234, 236, 266

      coronation charter……………. 17, 31, 32

      coronation oath ……. 14–18, 30, 31, 52, 82, 86–102, 104, 107, 128, 133, 134, 136, 139, see also kingship, theory of

      inalienable rights … 16, 233, 250, 251

      Costello, George A…………………….. 256

      Council ….22, 34, 35, 61, 62, 69, 71–80, 80–90, 97–113, 114–22, 127, 132, 138, 140, 143, 180

      chancellor ….45, 69, 72, 75, 77, 83, 115, 116, 121

      committee of hearers……………. 115

      conciliar process……………. 118, 120

      concilium baronum………………… 69

      Council’s judicial role……… 116, 145

      common law ineffective……. 122

      due process of law…………… 121

      Council’s legislative role………… 115

      false suggestions……………. 120, 121

      justiciar……………. 45, 69, 72, 75–77

      council-regency … see also kingship, sub regency

      Coutances, Archbishop Walter de ….45, 47, 63

      cruel and unusual punishment …..…see also Constitution

      curia regis….. 11, 13, 27, 28, 37, 43, 117

      D

      Darnel’s Case …153, see also forced loans

      Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 17 U.S. 518 (1819) ….203, 230

      Davidson v. New Orleans, 96 U.S. 97 (1878)….. 211

      Davies, James Conway …..86, 91, 95, 96, 99, 101–05

      Davies, R.G……………. 75, 113, 114, 116

      De la Pole, Chancellor………………… 131

      impeachment………………………. 131

      Denton, J.H……………………………….. 75

      deposition …8, 16, 46, 108, 142, see also church; High Court of Parliament

      Edward II’s deposition…………… 107

      John’s almost………………………… 51

      Richard II’s deposition…………… 134

      Despensers……………………….. 105, 126

      diffidatio…………….. see also feudalism

      disseisin……………… see also feudalism

      Dodd, Gwilym………. 6, 81, 83, 111, 112

      Domesday Survey………………….. 30, 36

      Douglas, David C…. 2, 15, 21, 30, 31, 37

      Dred Scott…………………………. 229, 230

      Due Process Clause ….2, 183, 189, 191, 211, 212, 228, 230, 231, 245, 249–64

      substantive due process ….3, 230, 231, 233, 245, 252, 257

      due process of law ….2, 117, 118, 121, 126, 129, 145, 154, 155, 159, 182–264, 266, 267, see also Magna Carta; Chapter 39; Fifth Amendment; Fourteenth Amendment

      caught red-handed………….. 23, 129

      E

      Easterbrook, Frank H………….. 183, 186

      Edward I ….6, 19, 33, 80–91, 93, 96, 99, 101, 103, 107, 109, 114, 116, 119, 139, 144, 157, 231

      Council in Parliament……………… 85

      law giver………………………………. 85

      Edward II …..15, 75, 91–109, 114, 116, 128, 139, 141, 144

      coronation oath of…………………. 92

      Edward III …108, 113, 123, 124, 130, 142

      Ehrlich, Ludwik………………….. 8, 82, 93

      Elton, G.R………………………………… 122

      English Constitution ….1, 135, 141, 147, 165, 168, 179, 231, 265, 267

      Equal Protection Clause ….see also Fourteenth Amendment

      Evans, G.R…………………………………… 9

      evil councilors …91, 96, 101, 104, 140, 152, 232

      evolving standards of decency…….. 264

      ex post facto…….. see also Constitution

      excommunication …8, 9, 16, 44, 51–53, 65, 68, 71, 79, 83, 97, 124, 140, see also church

      John’s………………………………….. 51

      F

      Farrand, Max…………………….. 179, 180

      federalism………………….. 241, 256, 266

      feudalism………………………. 18, 46, 128

      commendation……………………… 21

      Conrad II…………………………. 23, 60

      consilium …21, 24, 26, 27, 29, 34, 69, 102, 137, see also common counsel

      diffidatio………………………… 25, 143

      diffidation …25, 26, 44, 54, 58, 62, 108, 140, 143

      disseisin…….. 24, 39, 48, 59, 61, 184

      distraint …24, 36, 38, 39, 41, 49, 62, 67, 97, 138, 140, 173, 178

      fealty………. 8, 15, 20, 23, 52, 57, 69

      feud…………………………………….. 19

      feudal contract……………………… 24

      homage …21, 23, 24, 32, 52, 66, 94, 95, 108

      judgment before………….. 22, 48, 54

      sine judicio et injuste………….. 39

      judicium parium.……………………. 57

      maintenance……………………. 20, 21

      oath-worthy………………………….. 20

      retainers………………………………. 19

      self-help………………………………. 26

      surety………………… 19, 20, 120, 121

      tenants in chief….. 21, 26, 28, 57, 58

      Field, Justice Stephen J… 245, 249, 251, 252, 254, 257, 258

      Fifteenth Amendment……………….. 241

      Fifth Amendment …2, 3, 179, 182, 227, 228, 254, 256, 264, 266

      plain-language construction of …183, 191, 217

      Five Knights Case ..see also forced loans

      forced loans……………….. 152, 153, 158

      Fourteenth Amendment …3, 241, 251, 252, 256–58, 266

      Equal Protection Clause …242, 252, 256, 257, 261

      substantive equal protection …253

      fundamental law …1, 97, see also arbitrary rule; Constitution; English Constitution

      binding the king…………………… 149

      Constitution………………………… 181

      judicial use of ….223, 224, 246, 254–56, 258, 259, 264, 268

      Magna Carta as……………….. 97, 187

      prerogative a part of…………….. 154

      Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972) …264

      G

      Galbraith, V.H……………………………. 30

      Ganshof, F.L…………………………. 19, 21

      Gaveston, Piers or Peter …91, 93, 96, 102, 105, 126

      Gedicks, Frederick Mark…………….. 251

      Glorious Revolution …162, 163, 165, 168, 265, 268

      seven bishops case……………….. 163

      Goldsworthy, Jeffrey …117, 152, 155, 157, 158, 165, 202

      Great Councils …27, 34, 70, 72, 74, 75, 103, 123

      Greenaway, George W………. 15, 31, 37

      Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965) …258, 260

      H

      habeas corpus …2, 152, 153, 158, 162, 236

      Haines, Charles Grove….. 205, 211, 251

      Hamilton, Alexander …185–90, 202, 204, 205

      Harding, Alan …14, 19, 22, 31, 36, 37, 40, 45, 76, 87, 110

      Harrison, John……… 204, 212, 230, 231

      Harriss, G.L. …….10, 72, 88–97, 99, 110–16, 124, 131–33, 144

      Haxey, Thomas………………….. 134, 163

      Haywood, Attorney General …193, 198, 232

      heightened scrutiny …see also judicial review

      Helmholz, R.H……………………………. 42

      Henry I……. 6, 17, 30, 31, 45, 52, 53, 55

      Henry II ….32, 35, 36, 39, 48, 49, 52, 57, 59, 63, 76, 77, 81, 183

      Henry III …66–71, 78–90, 109, 127, 139, 144

      majority………………………….. 67, 68

      minority……………………………….. 66

      Henry IV………………………………….. 134

      Herle, Charles…………………………… 158

      Hershey, Andrew H……… 72, 76, 77, 81

      High Court of Parliament …1, 84, 129, 132, 136, 139, 142, 144, 145, 265

      impeachment….. 128, 129, 131, 142

      parley………………………………….. 27

      parliamentary procedure……….. 133

      parliamentary sovereignty …2, 3, 29, 140, 145, 165, 166, 265

      partnership with community …141, 145

      Holdsworth, Sir William….27, 28, 33, 34, 37, 43, 49, 55, 77, 78, 82, 83, 112, 115, 122, 149, 152, 153, 162, 165

      Holmes v. Walton (New Jersey 1780) ….202

      Holmes, George……………………….. 129

      Holt, James C…………….. 44–64, 75, 128

      House of Commons…………………. 1, 75

      Commons …3, 42, 75, 100, 104–67, 181, 184, 185, 242, 265, 267

      impeachment …2, 99, 108, 130–33, 135, 139, 142, 152

      Hurnard, Naomi D………………………. 36

      Hurtado v. California, 110 U.S. 516 (1884) ….230, 245, 246, 248

      I

      indictment and presentment… 37, 38, 60, 109, 118, 121, 129, 130, 142, 154, 155, 183, 185, 190, 202, 204, 245, see also assizes; common-law procedure; due process of law; law of the land

      information…….. see also common law

      Innocent III, Pope…….. 9, 17, 50–54, 65

      inquest ….30, 39, 76, 80, 129, see also assize

      itinerant judges………………………….. 37

      J

      James I…………………………….. 150, 162

      James II……………………………. 162, 163

      Jefferson, Thomas…………………….. 237

      Jensen, Merrill……………. 172, 174, 175

      Johnson, Robert C…………………….. 149

      Jolliffe, John Edward Austin …7–117, 19, 25, 35, 64, 103, 108, 111, 143

      Judge, Igor………………………………… 55

      judicial activism ….245, 256, 258, 261, 264, see also arbitrary rule

      courtwealth………………………… 257

      judicial anarchy……………………. 211

      judicial hegemony………….. 263, 264

      judicial prerogative….. 205, 240, 245

      judicial state…………… 258, 267, 268

      reasonableness review …3, 219, 251, 254, 255, 261, 264, 268

      fairness…..204, 230, 245, 254, 257

      tyranny of the majority…… 240, 248

      judicial nominations………………….. 264

      judicial proofs ….38, see also battle, trial by; compurgation; ordeal; trial by jury; inquest; oath; judicium parium

      judicial review… 224, 227, 235, 248, 264

      beyond reasonable doubt ………202, 217, 227, 248, 249

      heightened scrutiny……….. 254, 255

      judicial restraint…………………… 216

      rational basis………………… 254, 255

      vested property interests………. 211

      judicium parium ….22, 38, 46, 60, 61, 109, 125–27, 129, 130, 142, 144, 181, see also feudalism; High Court of Parliament

      Judson, Margaret Atwood……… 148–63

      Jurow, Keith…………………………….. 120

      K

      Kantorowicz, Ernst………… 8, 11, 18, 99

      Keeler, Mary F………………………….. 149

      Keeney, Barnaby C…………………. 23, 61

      Kent, Chancellor James…… 192, 237–40

      Kenyon, J.P……… 148, 150, 158, 160–63

      Kern, Fritz……………………. 8, 10, 29, 33

      Killian, Johnny H……………………….. 256

      kin…………………………………………… 19

      King, P.D…………………………………… 10

      kingship, theory of ….9, 18, 82, see also vicar of God; church; common utility; arbitrary rule

      above the law….. 11, 12, 18, 86, 136

      divine right …117, 150, 165, 205, 265

      fountain of justice…………….. 10, 28

      minority ….22, 66, 69, 72, 73, 78–90, 108, 127, 130–32, 138, 141

      non obstante…………….. 68, 86, 164

      paradox……………………………….. 29

      per perceptum domini regis …59, 77, 153

      per voluntatem ….10, 48, 66, 184, 233, 268

      placing government in council …72, 73, 78, 131

      prerogative …..127, 128, 152, 154, 265

      proceedings against king or his ministers  …..57, 58, 81, 93, 97, 108, 128, 136, 153

      quo warranto……………… 68, 76, 80

      quod habet vigorem legis principi placuit ….10

      regency ….45, 66, 67, 69, 74, 78, 87, 93, 108, 124, 127, 131, 138

      separate capacities……. 95, 107, 150

      succession, conciliatory attitude …67, 87, 130, 134, 141

      two bodies…………………….. 8, 9, 11

      vicar of God ….9, 11, 33, 58, 165, see also church

      gratia Dei………………. 10, 16, 29

      voluntas princepis….. 29, 44, 57, 153

      knights and burgesses ….75, 76, 79, 103, 106, 107, 110–12, 123, 142

      L

      Lackland, King John ….1, 16, 25, 35, 36, 44–66, 69, 87, 90, 139, 144

      Lancaster, Henry of…………….. 106, 130

      Lancaster, Thomas of…… 104, 105, 129

      Langton, Stephen………………….. 51, 52

      Lapsley, Gaillard T…. 107, 125, 128, 129

      law of the land ….2, 42, 57, 59, 60, 69, 100, 101, 115–28, 154, 182–264,  see also due process of law; Magna Carta

      concept includes Parliament’s acts 155

      Leges Edwardi………………………. 52, 55

      Leges Henrici Primi……………. 31, 52, 55

      legibus solutus …..8, see kingship, theory of sub proceedings against king

      Liberty of Conscience or Declaration of Indulgence ….162

      Liebermann, Felix……………………….. 27

      Lindsay v. Commissioners, 2 S.C.L. 38 (Ct. App. 1796)…..209, 212–14

      Locke, John…… 166, 167, 207, 233, 267

      Longchamp, William…………. 45–47, 63

      Lords Appellant…………………. 132, 133

      Lovejoy, David S……………………….. 168

      Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967) .259

      Luscombe, D.E……………….. 7, 9, 25, 50

      Lyon, Bryce …..20, 27, 28, 32, 34, 35, 37, 38, 46

      M

      Maddicott, J.R. 15, 27, 34, 55, 67, 72, 73, 79, 87, 90, 96, 98, 102, 105

      Madison, James…………… 173, 180, 235

      Magna Carta…. 2, 17, 24, 48–64, 124–26, 137, 139, 143, 154, 157, 161, 167, 169, 202, 203, 230, 231, 265, 266

      Articuli super Cartas ….71, 89, 98, 101, 119, 139

      Chapter 12………………… 55, 56, 137

      Chapter 39 ….2, 55, 57, 60, 117, 137, 183, 266

      Chapter 40……………………………. 77

      Chapter ….61 55, 61, 62, 65, 67, 73, 94, 97, 137, 138

      Confirmatio Cartarum of 1297 ….17, 88, 98, 268

      confirmation of ….55, 70, 71, 78, 88, 97, 99, 112, 123, 125, 134, 138, 140, 143, 144, 158

      taxes………… 67, 71, 88, 123, 138

      foundation for statute 138, 142, 143, 205

      Magna Carta as a bargaining chip ….71, 79, 138

      modify………… 71, 84, 100, 157, 231

      Runnymede……………………… 54, 65

      spirit of………………………………… 71

      Maitland, Frederic……….. 19, 22, 24, 83

      Malcolm, Joyce Lee…………….. 150, 158

      Markus, R.A………………………………. 14

      Marshall, John………………………….. 234

      Mason, George………………….. 181, 182

      Matthew……………………. see also Bible

      Mayo v. Wilson, 1 N.H. 53 (1817) 198, 201

      McConnell, Michael W….. 186, 201, 257

      McKean, Thomas………………………. 234

      McKechnie, William Sharpe… 49, 53–55

      McKisack, May… 110, 111, 123–25, 130

      medieval political theory……………….. 5

      Merciless Parliament ….130, 133,  see also Richard II

      Milsom, S.F.C………………………. 76, 117

      Morris, Colin …….6, 7, 9, 46, 50, 51, 85, 107

      Murray v. Hoboken Land & Improvement Co., 59 U.S. 272 (1856)……228, 229

      Musson, Anthony… 37, 81, 98, 112, 134

      Myers, A.R………………………….. 131–34

      N

      natural law 8, 10, 13, 14, 33, 93, 95, 136, 145, 233, see also Bracton

      Necessary and Proper Clause………. 181

      necessity, law of …..see also common utility; kingship sub separate capacities

      Nelson, Janet…………………………….. 17

      Nicol, D.M…………………………………. 10

      Norman Conquest …14, 17, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 30, 60, 66

      William the Conqueror……………. 30

      Normandy………………….. 45, 49, 50, 69

      Northwest Ordinance…………. 183, 236

      Notestein, Wallace……………………. 149

      O

      Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. — (2015) ….261

      ordeal ….14, 22, 38, 40, 61, see also judicial proofs

      Ordinances ….71, 89, 98, 99, 101, 104–06, 110, 119, 123, 125

      Baronial Declaration……………….. 95

      Ordainers ….80, 125, 127, 132, 140, 142, 268

      right and reason ….99, see also competition over right, reason, utility, and necessity

      original writs…….. 33, 77, 118, 121, 145

      register of writs……………………… 81

      Ormrod, Mark W…..37, 81, 98, 111, 112, 134

      Osgood, Herbert L…………………….. 168

      P

      Palmer, Robert C………………………… 25

      Paper Constitution……. 72, 73, 132, 138

      Parliament …..see also High Court of Parliament

      participatory government ……..2, 3, 29, 160, 165, 170, 179, 185, 197, 207, 232, 243, 252, 257, 264, 267, 268, see also High Court of Parliament; arbitrary rule; Constitution; fundamental law

      Paterson, Justice ….208, 211, see also vested property interests; judicial activism

      petitions. ….12, 62, 63, 70, 75–87, 98, 100, 103, 110–22, 125–44, 158, 160, 163, 229

      Commons’ petitions… 111, 112, 142

      grace ..10, 13, 16, 28, 48, 81, 82, 116, 117, 142, 160, 163

      hallmark of the English Constitution …110

      hearers………………………….. 83, 115

      Petition of Right …82, 143, 152, 156, 158, 160, 161, 163, 187, 231

      right to…………… 134, 163, 170, 233

      Plucknett, Theodore F.T. …..7–117, 31, 84, 100, 129, 130, 132, 133, 148, 153, 162, 165, 233

      police power……………………… 241, 245

      Pollard, A.F…………………………………. 8

      Poole, Austin Lane ….17, 22, 23, 31, 35, 37, 38, 43, 44–66

      positive law …..8, 10, 11, 13, 18, 32, 60, 86, 96

      Post, Gaines…………… 10, 11, 13, 18, 88

      Powell v. Pennsylvania, 127 U.S. 678 (1888) ….248

      Powicke, Sir Maurice …..18, 59, 66–71, 76, 78–90, 121

      prerogative ….see also kingship, theory of

      Prestwich, Michael ….88, 89, 91, 98, 105, 110, 123, 125

      privacy, right to …3, 211, 255, 257, 258, 260

      Privy Seal……….. 89, 100, 101, 119, 145

      Procope, John………………………… 7, 10

      Provisions of Oxford ….101, see also Baronial Reform Period

      Q

      Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer ….107

      querelae……………….. 72, 76, 80, 81, 89

      R

      Rakove, Jack N…………………… 172, 174

      rational basis…. see also judicial review

      reason of sin ….see also Christian appeals; church

      reasonableness ….see also judicial activism; church sub reason

      recognition……………………… 37, 39–41

      regency…… see also kingship, theory of

      Relf, Frances Helen …149, 152–54, 158, 160, 161

      representative government …2, 3, 171, 233, 264

      republican principles …171, 196, 264, 265, 267

      Reynolds, Susan………….. 14, 22, 23, 33

      Richard I……… 34, 44, 45, 47, 48, 62, 73

      Richard II ….3, 99, 109, 128–35, 130, 133, 147, 163, 267

      Richardson, H.G. …14, 15, 18, 23, 25, 34, 49, 58, 63–66, 74, 76, 81, 85–87, 94, 104, 106, 114, 144

      Riggs, Robert E……… 155, 171, 185, 188

      Roberts, Chief Justice John…………. 261

      Robinson, I.S………………… 5, 6, 7, 9, 16

      Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973) ….259, 261

      Rogers, Alan……………….. 109, 132, 133

      Roman Catholics………………………. 162

      Rothwell, Harry ….2, 46, 52, 54, 56, 61, 65, 72, 88, 89, 92, 94, 98, 106, 184

      Rufus, William……………………………. 31

      rule of law …140, 144, 203, 204, 232, 242, 243, 267, 268, see also due process of law; arbitrary rule; judicial activism

      Russell, Conrad. …151, 153, 157, 158, 161, 162, 164

      S

      Saint Peter………. see also Bible; church

      salus populi suprema lex ….see also commonwealth

      same-sex marriage ….257, 261, 262, see also Obergefell v. Hodges

      Saul, Nigel……………………………….. 130

      Sayles, George O……… 7–117, 146, 160

      Scalia, Justice Antonin……………….. 262

      school desegregation…… 253, 257, 258

      Schwartz, Bernard…………………….. 202

      Schwoerer, Lois G. ….152, 153, 163–66, 233

      scutage…………………………. 56, 66, 137

      Semple, W.H……………………… 9, 17, 50

      Simpson, Hartley………………………. 149

      Star Chamber……………………. 122, 162

      State v. —, 2 N.C. (1 Hayw.) 50 (1794) …192, 232

      statute ….33, 60, 84, 86, 99, 100, 107, 110–22, 128, 143, 144, 154, 164, 231, see also High Court of Parliament

      42 Edward III………………… 156, 231

      annul….. 86, 114, 116, 128, 146, 163

      Edwardian statute………. 84, 85, 157

      equity and the rule of law… 117, 157

      importance of………… 113, 114, 205

      king in council enough for……….. 85

      modify law………………. 84, 157, 231

      ordinance…. 39, 84, 85, 99, 114, 115

      resolution of justice……….. 113, 140

      royal legislation……………………… 33

      suspending and dispensing …10, 152, 162–64, 224, 233, 265, 268

      Statute of 1341…….. 126, 127, 129, 132

      Statute of York………… 15, 93, 102, 106

      Stenton, Doris M………………. 22, 25, 41

      Storing, Herbert J….. 181, 182, 234, 239

      Stratford, Archbishop John 99, 122, 123–25, 128

      Stubbs, William……………………. 15, 246

      Supremacy Clause…………………….. 266

      suspending and dispensing ….see also statute; common utility; kingship sub prerogative

      Sutherland, Donald W…………………. 80

      T

      Tait, James………………………………… 47

      Taney, Chief Justice Roger B. …..229, 230, 245, 253

      taxation without representation ….2, 152, 265, see also arbitrary rule; Constitution

      Thirteenth Amendment………. 241, 253

      Thomas, Kenneth R…………………… 256

      Thompson, Faith ….68, 71, 86, 97, 100, 101, 105, 114, 117, 120, 121, 134, 154

      Tierney, Brian……………… 6, 7, 9, 32, 50

      Tite, Colin G.C……………………. 129, 152

      Tout, T.F… 74, 86, 89, 98, 101, 105, 107, 108, 129, 130

      Treharne, R.F………………………… 71–80

      Trevett v. Weeden (Rhode Island 1786) ….202

      trial by jury ……3, 37, 38, 185, 191–93, 198, 202, 204, 213, 229, 236, 239, see also judicial proofs

      petit jury………………………………. 38

      Trustees of the University of North Carolina v. Foy, 5 N.C. 57 (1805)….214, 216, 217

      Tudors…………….. 3, 122, 135, 145, 148

      Turner, Ralph V. ….11, 35, 43, 44, 46, 48, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 63, 67–70, 78, 86

      tyranny ….49, 134, 158, 230, 239, 266–68, see also arbitrary rule; High Court of Parliament; judicial activism

      U

      Ullmann, Walter ….5–16, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 60

      ascending theory…………………… 29

      descending theory…………………. 29

      V

      Valente, Claire…………………… 108, 109

      Van Caenegem, R.C…. 26, 31, 33, 38–41

      Vanhorne’s Lessee v. Dorrance, 2 U.S. 304 (1795) ….211, see also vested property interests

      vested property interests ….48, 68, 151, 177, 193, 206, 212, 214, 217, 218, 221–23

      A-to-B laws…………………………. 211

      due process of law……………….. 217

      law of the land………………. 212, 214

      natural law defense of……. 207, 208

      origin of judicial activism…. 206, 211

      representative consent ….151, 206, 210, 211

      takings………………….. 184, 207, 217

      jury required…………………… 208

      just compensation …….183, 191, 208, 212, 213

      necessity………………………… 207

      vicar of God ….see also kingship theory; Bible; Christian empire sub two swords

      vox curiae, vox Dei.……………………. 268

      vox populi, vox Dei …109, see also commonwealth

      W

      Walter, Archbishop Hubert…………… 50

      Warren, Chief Justice Earl …258, 259, 261, see also judicial activism

      Watt, J.A……………………………. 6, 9, 16

      we the people….. see also Constitution

      Webster, Daniel …203–05, 230, 245, 247, 253

      western constitutionalism……. 205, 207

      White, Stephen D…………………. 148–63

      Wilkinson, Bertie …..7–117, 102, 107, 125–27, 130, 134, 135, 140, 141, 143, 145, 211

      Williams, Ryan C. …171, 183, 185, 198, 205, 214, 242

      Witan………………………………………. 27

      written or unwritten constitutions ….33, 35, 60, 62, 84, 203, 212, 217, 220, 224, 239, 248, 258, 267, 268

      Wynehamer v. People, 13 N.Y. 378 (1856)…..217–19, 221, 223, 248

      Z

      Zylstra v. Corp. of Charleston, 1 S.C.L. 382 (Ct. Com. Pl. 1794) ….. 214

       

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